Thailand (In Thai -. ประเทศไทย).Once known as Kingdom of Thailand (In Thai - ราช อาณาจักร ไทย. [Râ: tɕʰa ʔa: na: tɕɑk tʰɑj]) and Siam (up to 1939 years) - a state located in the South-East Asia, the northern part of the Malay Peninsula, the western part of Indochina. East End Thailand adjacent to the territory of Laos and Cambodia, south - with Malaysia, western - with Myanmar. The very name of the State (from the Thai word "Thai» (ไทย) - «freedom») speaks for itself, as the Kingdom Thailand It is a single country in South-Eastern Asia, which has managed to preserve its independence from the powerful countries in Europe, as it was in the neighboring states, which became the colonies of Great Britain and France.
Its modern name Thailand (Thailand) Received 30-ies of XX century, thanks to the emergence of social Germanized version, which literally means "land of the Thais." Immediately this phrase in Thai language sounds "prathet Thay."
Thailand located on the South-East Asia, covering an area of two peninsulas - Mallaka and Indochina. In the east, the land of the Kingdom washed by the Gulf of Siam South China Sea in the east - the Andaman Sea. Territory Thailand It stretches from north to south. Distance from the farthest point in the north to the farthest point of the south of 1860 km. It is due to such a large extent and location in the heart of Southeast Asia, Thailand has several varieties of climate in different regions of the country. Therefore, the land is given harvest several times a year, and the flow of tourists is not limited to one season, as a favorable climate enables you to relax all year round. 10% territory Thailand - Forests. In the south - tropical evergreen, in the north - tropical deciduous.
For some indicators (climatic, geographical, ethnic, availability of natural resources, due to the prevailing topography) Thailand's territory is divided into five regions:
Depending on the region, Thailand has its own climatic features. For example, the southern and central regions have a subequatorial climate, the equatorial climate predominates on the border with Malaysia, and the tropical tropical in the northern part. All because the most part of the state is under the influence of the northeast and south-western monsoons in the subequatorial and tropical belts. Since the extent from the extreme north point of Thailand to the extreme south is quite high (1860 km), the latitude difference is 15º. And this means that among all countries of South-East Asia, the Kingdom has the most diverse climate. At the end of May - the middle of July, a south-western monsoon carries a pleasant coolness along with the rains. Approximately in November, when the rains cease, the so-called "dry cool season" approaching until the middle of February is approaching. At the same time, in the territory Thailand (Except for areas of the Central, Northern and North-Eastern Thailand) Acts northeast monsoon, which also carries cool. In the period from February to May and weakened monsoon rain comes heat, which lasts until the turn of the monsoon season. So begins a new cycle, which takes all the steps again.
Say exactly how many rainy season in Thailand, Quite hard. Typically, this period begins in May and ends in November. Peak rainfall in the center of the country and on the east coast is in August - September. The final month of the rainy season - October. Then in urban drainage and irrigation systems is going to a lot of water, which can lead to serious flooding. For example, some of Bangkok, located below sea level (about 1 / 3 of the territory of the capital), is under the waters of the Chao Phraya River, which came out of their coasts.
Areas that are at the equator experience less temperature fluctuations than those regions that are distant from it. Most "cold" months Thailand - From December to February (+ 20 - + 27ºS). Night in the mountainous areas of northern part of the country, temperatures can reach zero, and in the afternoon - + 25ºS. In the capital of Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai, in the morning in a given period can be only + 10ºS, while in other areas - from + 20ºS. The hottest months - April and May. Then, the temperature can reach index + 35 - + 40ºS.
The population of Thailand
Overwhelming majority of the population Thailand - Ethnic Thais and Laotians (about 80%). About 10% residing in the territory of the Kingdom - ethnic Chinese, of which the most famous is Thaksin Shinawatra, the Thai prime minister. The rest of the population is covered by the Khmer ethnic groups, the Hmong, the Malays and Vietnamese who remained in the eastern territories since the days of the fighting during the Vietnam War.
King in Thailand assigned to the mission is not only a guarantor of the state, but also the patron protector of all religions. As a neutral mediator, His Majesty brings together in times of crisis, representatives of various religions and political forces. King intervenes only when necessary to avoid war and bloodshed. His Majesty is respectful to his people, who, in turn, raises the king and his family to the rank of the most respectful persons of the state. Thais believe in their king sincerely and selflessly. These are the features of the board Bhumibol.
In addition to a dedicated faith in their king, Thais follow the Buddhism, which has formed the unique image of this people. Since the thirteenth century, Hinayana Buddhism ("a small chariot") reigns in Thailand. Another branch of Buddhist teaching, which has its faithful followers - Mahayana ("the great chariot"). To date, the name "Hinayana" is a kind of archaism, therefore this kind of Buddhism was given the name of "theyurveda" ("the teachings of the oldest"). Theravada is the oldest version of Buddhism, which survived in writing (known as the "Pali Canon") and is the closest one to what Siddhartha Gautama Buddha preached. According to the doctrine, tourists are obliged to follow certain rules without preconditions to avoid disrespectful manifestations to the relics of the state: behavior in temples, next to monks or holy Buddha images should be appropriate; for women there are some limitations in appearance and behavior. However, in Hinayana rituals and rituals are simpler and more loyal than in the Indian Mahayana.
Buddhism and other religions are firmly entrenched not only in the life of the monasteries, but also in all aspects of Thai society. Long since there were two main crops affected by each layer of the population. One of them - the rural culture with traditional dances and songs (eg ramvong), with original stories, rituals, beliefs, with their own agricultural and life cycle. The second - the court culture that reveres Buddhism, which absorbed some elements of Hinduism.
very rich in handicrafts. Here at various times engaged and continue to engage in the art of weaving rattan and wicker weave the most delicate silk, creating an unusual household items, skillfully treated wood. Court culture of keeping up with its variety of folk and grandeur. It includes unique architecture of Buddhist monasteries; classical theater "Khon" with orchestral accompaniment "Phi phat", reading and singing recitative; sculpture of the Buddha; murals in temples. Thai sculptures are a very important component of the Buddhist heritage in the world. Not for nothing is the Buddha traditionally portrayed in certain positions of the body. This has some sense, understandable to the followers of the teachings of Gautama. Samples of different styles of sculptural art are represented in the National Museum (Bangkok). You can see the world's largest stupa near Nakhon Pathom, west of Bangkok. This architectural miracle, known as the Phra Path Chedi, is fixed at 127 meters in height! A distance of 16 km from Chiang Mai in the north-west direction, there is an opportunity to contemplate the true shrine of Buddhist religion - the temple of Wat-Pra-Doi-Suthep, towering on the mountain.
Another religion that professes about 4,6% of the total population Thailand - Islam. This category includes people of the province in the south, not far from the state of Malaysia.
В Thailand there are also followers of the Christian course. First appeared mention of this religion in the territory of Siam in the notes of Louis Varsemy - traveler from Italy. Passing stranger here about 1505 year and it was then pointed out that the main Christians in the area are Armenians, having trade relations with India. More Siam met with Christianity through missionaries Catholics in XVI-XVI centuries. Today at Thailand occurs preaching in Catholic and Protestant communities, there is the Russian Orthodox Church. In general, Christians live in the northern mountains and cover 0,7% - 1,7% of the total population of the state. Mainly among Christians there are Catholics, but there are also representatives of the currents of Baptists, Protestants, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Adventists, the followers of the Assemblies of God.
Until such time as the first formed Thai State Sukhothai part of the territory Thailand at different times were part of the Chenla, BAPNA, Khmer Empire, Dvaravati. Once there was a falling Khmer Empire, State Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Bangkok became the successor of the Cambodian culture, as in most of Cambodia was not favorable conditions for its development. That is why Thai architecture strongly absorbed elements of Cambodian architecture.
Тайская culture is inextricably intertwined with Buddhism and Hinduism. As for the monumental buildings, the Thailand preferred types of buildings such as temples and stupas. Stupas were created in the likeness of Mon and Khmer architecture - chedi, Prasat, Prasanga ("right" means "holy"). The temple was built according to the prototype milestone and represents a building with a wooden roof and powerful stone or brick columns.
Thailand in architectural terms is famous for its unique temples and unique Grand Royal Palace, located in Bangkok. Each building on the territory of the temples is made with observance of various forms, which bear special semantic meanings. Such buildings are usually referred to as schools, libraries, sanctuaries, halls for religious ceremonies. The walls are often decorated with various scenes from the Hindu epic and animals from ancient mythology. An important religious attribute of architectural structures is the Bodhi trees, sacred in Buddhism, planted in the courtyards of monasteries. Temples are protected by sculptures of mythical animals, which are endowed with supernatural power.
As during the ceremonies, and in religious ceremonies, court life in music is an irreplaceable value. The orchestra consists of a harmonious sound of stringed instruments, gongs, xylophones and bells. Such music is present at the time of modern public ceremonies and classical theater. How to taste European, traditional Thai music seems somewhat unusual.
Thai art is a special art. The most famous centers in this respect are Chiang Mai and Bangkok. Cotton products and goods made of silk are known not only to all of Asia, but also to the whole world. Thai craftsmen in the field of artistic wood processing create unique wooden objects of everyday use and amazing furniture. This is not all: skillfully cultivated caskets, decorated with traditional umbrellas and fans, famous Asian ceramics, brass and bronze ware, unique Thai dolls and much more - all this splendor can be found on the shelves of local shops and shopping malls. In addition, in Thailand it is very profitable to purchase jewelry from gold and silver with various precious stones - sapphires, rubies, emeralds and other gems.
Thailand is popular by the fact that its territory is grown large number of different varieties of rice. Every year on the world market comes about 9 million. This product. On the territory of the Kingdom, including trafficked for export "Jasmine" rice - authentic Thai pride. So this sort of nickname because of delicate aroma, like the smell of a delicate flower. Agricultural output in GDP is about 10% and safely seek to increasing rates. Southern regions Thailand provide many countries pineapple, corn, cassava, sweet potato, coconuts, bananas. Due to the fact that the Kingdom first learned to grow durianSo-called "king of fruits", the state is now a major exporter of this exotic fruit. Thai Fruit.
1. Primitive Thailand
2. Early history of Thailand
3. During the formation and development of the first nations of Thailand (approximately 3000 BCE to 1238 AD):
f) Pan Pan;
4. Sukhothai (1238-1448 years)
5. Lanna (1296-1558 years)
6. Nakhon Si Thammarat (1283-1468 years)
7. Ayutthaya (1351-1767 years)
8. Thonburi (1768-1782 years)
9. Rattanakosin (1782-1932 years)
10. Formation of the Kingdom of Thailand:
a) during the military dictatorship (with 1932 1973 for years);
b) Democracy (with 1973 year and these days).
The territory of the State Thailand was formed in 1238 year - then the Kingdom of Sukhothai was formed. Later, in 1350, the present state is replaced by Ayutthaya (the kingdom of Ayutthaya). At that time there was a huge influence of Indian and Chinese cultures. The eighteenth century was a turning point for Siam, as the lands were undergoing barbarous raids by the Burmese. Thanks to Thaksin and Pra Buddha Yodf Chulalok who took over the reins of government in 1782, it was discontinued. Chulaloke became king of Rama I and founded the glorious Chakri dynasty. His heirs, Kings Rama IV and Rama V, were so successful on the board that Thailand, the only one of all the countries of Southeast Asia, thanks to their efforts, never became a colony of one of the powerful European powers. However, from the territory Thailand still "broke" the three provinces, which later became states in the northern part of Malaysia.
What Thailand avoided the fate of becoming a colony, can be attributed to several factors. The first is that the Thai government has been beneficial to leave in the same independent status as well as the territory of the kingdom was reasonable buffer zone between the colonies, who had become part of France and the UK. The second reason could be the existence of serious and far-sighted politicians at the throne of Thailand. Events 1932 years, gone down in history under the guise of peaceful revolution, and formed a consolidated form of government - a constitutional monarchy.
Up to 1939 years Thailand was known as Siam, however, 1949 year (after World War II) The current name of the country even more firmly established. During the war Kingdom Thailand strongly supported Japan's position, and after the end of hostilities became an ally of the United States.
At that time, the most famous and revered ruler was Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Being a part-time historian and a competent politician, he founded the modern Thai education system and the system of provincial administration. For his services Damrong Rajanubhab managed to become the first Thai, entered in the UNESCO list of the most respected personalities in the world.
В Thailand even has its own calendar, which differs considerably from the western era. It is based on the Buddhist Era and has a disagreement with the European variant on 543 years (eg, 2013 year in Thailand will amount to 2556 year).
Currently, natural disaster intervened December 26 2004, in the rhythm Thailand: On the coastal areas of the state struck a devastating tsunami. As a result of the disaster killed about 5 thousand. People, half of which was accounted for visitors.
The coup d'etat 2006 years and the emergence of a political crisis on 2008 2010 GG
19 September 2006 was held in a military coup Thailand, As reported by the international media in 23: 00 Thai time. Local TV channels have not been able to pass this information on their own, as were captured.
Thaksin Shinawatra, Thai Prime Minister, at a session of the UN General Assembly in New York, announced the imposition of a state of emergency and called on the military to stop the riots. The putsch along with the seizure of government facilities announced loyalty to the royal person. The military in 2008 contributed to the transfer of power to the new government. Samak Sundaravej became the Prime Minister. This led to a clash between supporters and opponents of Sundaravei in August-September. According to the court's decision, Samaku Sundaravei was refused re-election to office. The King Thailand for the post of Prime Minister of the state was finally elected Somchai Wongsawat.
20 May 2014 year martial law was imposed in ThailandAnd already 22 May established a curfew from 22: 00 on 05: 00 avoid riots. General Prayuth Chan-ocha, acting as commander of the Army ThailandBy televised announced what happened in the country a military coup. At the same time, for an indefinite period has ceased to operate Constitution.
On the same day, 22 May Prayuth Chan-ocha became head of the military government.
Features of the economic situation in Thailand
Economy Thailand has both advantages and disadvantages, which have not yet been overcome.
The benefits include:
• export significantly exceeds import;
• the availability of natural gas;
• rapid economic growth;
• a major exporter of a wide range of fruits, rice and rubber.
Weaknesses of the economy:
• the main economic resources are concentrated mainly around Bangkok;
• large external debts, which tend to increase rapidly;
• lack of fresh water;
• large number of people working in small farms (about 60%).
With regard to energy resources, about 70% of all electricity is generated using natural gas produced from the bottom of the Gulf of Thailand from offshore field Platong. Also reduced natural gas supplied from Qatar LNG Terminal Map Ta Phut LNG.
Large income to the state treasury Thailand receives from tourism. According to the data in 2011 the Kingdom was visited by about 19 million. Tourists. More often than not, vacationers are sent to areas Pattaya, Bangkok, Samui, Phuket.
The political system in Thailand
В Thailand operates a constitutional monarchy, and the head of state is the king. Though now the king has no absolute power, he plays the role of defender of the Buddhist religion, the Supreme Commander, represents a symbol of unity. People Thailand very respectful of his king, that we had to be very helpful during the political and social crises.
Parliament - bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (150 seats) and the House of Representatives (480 seats). The leader of the party, which has a prevailing majority in the House of Representatives, is usually given the right to become prime minister of the state. Half of the members of the Upper House shall be appointed by the king, and the rest are elected by the people. Senate fulfills its governmental functions 6 years, Lower House (House of Representatives) - 4 years. Previously, before March 2000 years, members of the Senate appointed by the king.
Kingdom of Thailand is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Kingdom of Thailand divided into 77 changvat-provinces. In Bangkok, the 2013 has received the status of autonomous 77-th province.
Thailand relations with Russia
In Russia, was established postage stamp dedicated to the anniversary - 100-anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Kingdom Thailand and Russia. And it all began with the fact that in the late nineteenth century Thailand counting on the support of the Imperial Russia in defending its sovereignty from the powerful colonial states in Europe. Relations between the two countries are improving, as evidenced by the arrival in 1882 Russian squadron in Siam (former name Thailand) In support of the celebration of the centennial anniversary of the establishment of the Chakri Dynasty. With the talented hands of the Russian composer PA Shchurovsky was written the music for the anthem of Siam in 1888 year. With 1932, this became a personal anthem for the royal couple. In 1891, Prince Nicholas visited Bangkok. On a return visit in the same year in the Crimea arrived Prince Damrong Siam and had an audience with Alexander III. In 1896, Prince Chira was invited to the ceremony of the coronation of Nicholas II.
Official diplomatic relations were established between the states of Siam and Russia at the time when the king Chulalongkorn (known as Rama V) visited the empire, who visited Russia from 2 on 10 July 1897. In December 1897 year in Siam, Alexander Olarovsky was appointed Consul General of the Russian Empire and Chargé d'affaires. In Bangkok, the Consulate General, which existed before 1917 year, was opened and gradually expanded. Symbol of diplomatic relations between states was the adoption by the Siamese royal guardsmen of the form of Russian hussars. Some elements of this form have survived to this day. The Thai aristocracy often left for St. Petersburg and Moscow for the purpose of obtaining an education. Prince Chakrabon lived for several years in Russia, served in the Russian army, studied and in 1906 year married Desnitskaya Catherine.
With 1917, relations between Russia and Thailand temporarily interrupted. Again managed to establish communication between the states only 1941 year. In 1947 signed a bilateral agreement on the exchange of diplomatic missions and soon his work in Bangkok launched the Russian embassy. During the "Cold War" relations between the two countries for some time "began to break" and purchased a neutral character.
Friendly relations established between the Soviet Union and Thailand in 1979 year, when the result of the visit of Thai Prime Minister Kriangsak Chamanana in the USSR was the creation of the Soviet-Thai Friendship Society. Gradually, by the end of 80-ies relations have been further strengthened, marking the exchange of friendly visits of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Thailand and the USSR in 1987 year. A year later, Thai Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda visited Moscow, and in 1990 chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Nikolai Ryzhkov to come back to Bangkok.
In the year 1991, 28 December Thai government was among the first who recognized the Russian Federation as an independent state, and reiterated his desire to strengthen relations between states even stronger.
In the XXI century continued to expand mutually beneficial friendship between the two countries. The first visit of the head of state since the establishment of the sovereign of the Russian Federation Thailand held in 2003 year. VV Putin and his wife made several missions during the five-day official visit to the Kingdom: King Rama IX visited Pumipona Adulyadej at the invitation of the monarch, made a visit at the invitation of national importance of the Prime Minister Thailand Thaksin Shinawatra, took part in the summit of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation).
The trip turned out to be quite fruitful. Countries have been able to resolve the debt problem before the USSR ThailandWhich was 36,5 million.
Another very important step towards friendship between states was made in November 5 2009 years. Then signed an important agreement between the Russian Federation and Thailand, which allows tourists come-Russians in Thailand Thais and tourists in Russia without a visa for up to 30 days. The agreement entered into force on March 23 2007 years.
The relationship between the Kingdom of Thailand and the government of Cambodia
Relations between the two countries are specific. There are some land and sea areas on the border between Cambodia and ThailandWhich is still not clearly defined.
Tensions between the countries have become more acute after the Government of Cambodia to designate a former economic adviser to the Prime Minister Thailand Thaksin Shinawatra. As a result, there was discontent in the Kingdom, which resulted in a recall of the Thai ambassador to Cambodia in November 5 2009 years.
A few interesting facts about Thailand
Surprisingly, up to 1913 years, most of the Thais, especially villagers had no names, but names only.
Thailand - Really religious country that affects their faith in the ideals of Buddhism. There are about 32 700 Buddhist temples. In total, they live about 370 thousand. Novices and monks. This means that the inhabitants of the Kingdom of 170 there is one monk.
Chakrapong Prince, son of King Rama V, married Catherine Desnitsky. The result of their marriage was the birth of a son.
У Thais there is a method of chronology. They live on the solar calendar, is a kind of Buddhist calendar. Chronology conducted since the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni in 543 BC
The smallest mammal in the world resides in the territory Thailand - It's an amazing Kitti's hog-nosed bat.