KingdomTHAILAND It is located in south-east Asia.
His inhabit 65 million. The bulk of the population is just Thai nations; they also relate to 15 ethnic communities, including the Thai-Korat, Khon Lao and Thai. here also live Chinese, Malays, Yao tribes, Mao and peoples belonging to the Tibeto-Burman group. The official language is Thai language. It became the main religion of Buddhism. His professed 95% of the population. In addition there are also Buddhists, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Hindus. The Malays are just Muslims. People who profess other religions, live mainly in Bangkok. Bangkok - the capital of the country. himself THAILAND 72 has the province.
state form of government - a constitutional monarchy. The Prime Minister is the head of government. The candidate becomes prime minister, if the election he receives the most votes. The bicameral National Assembly includes the Senate and House of Representatives. She became the highest legislative body. Since 1997 years, in accordance with the state constitution, the Senate - elected, but before he was appointed king. As for tradition, and for the law, insult the king and his family considered a crime against the state.
The situation in Thailand on the map
value THAILAND France virtually equal magnitude. Its area - 513 thousand square kilometers. The country covers west and north Indochina Malay Peninsula. The latitude and tropical subequatorial. There is access to the Andaman Sea to the southwest. To the south is the Gulf of Thailand. THAILAND borders with Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia and Myanmar.
In the country there is a mountain, located in the west and north. The highest point in the mountains is Inhtanon, whose height -. 2567 m located sandstone Korat Plateau in the eastern part of Thailand. It rises in the west and south. Centre THAILAND It takes Menamskaya lowland. The southern part of the country is narrowed, there are low plains with ridges and island mountains. The length of the country from west to east - 1250 km. Width - 2500 km. The largest rivers - the Chao Phraya and Mekong with the influx of moon. The fourth part of the whole territory occupied forest. In the rivers and reservoirs in the mountains equipped.
Natural conditions in Thailand
The climate here is totally dependent on the tropical monsoon. In the year there falls to 2000 mm of precipitation per year. In the mountains, this figure is more than - 5000 mm. The dry season is the winter and lasts from November to April. In the center of the country, which occupies a plain, average temperature + 22-29 degrees. This temperature is favorable to deciduous tropical forests. Evergreen tropical forests are located in areas where the humidity is higher. In Korat plateau dominated woodlands.
For a newcomer who, besides, came here for the first time, the sensations are rather strange. Temperature and high humidity give a sense of bath. But such a climate has a very favorable effect on the fertility of the earth, because Menama is one of the most fertile plains. Thus, THAILAND is one of the leading exporters of rice. Due to the fact that the climate in the country is predominantly tropical, it has its own misunderstandings and unpleasant moments. So, during rainstorms in the streets of Thailand, in particular, in Bangkok, there are whole rain rivers. But at the same time the beaches are sunny, so there is some compensation in the overall picture of climatic conditions prevailing in the country. Rafting on the rivers THAILAND is widespread.
The first settlements and state formations began to appear here rather late - in the first millennium of our era. The great Darvati empire, according to some sources, appeared here in the 7th century. It is also called Lavaux. Over time, more and more new state entities began to appear, which led to an increase in internecine and feudal wars. Such confrontations did not pass without a trace: the states became weaker. Therefore, in the 11th century, Lavaux was conquered by the Cambodian state. Buddhism began to spread here in the 12th-13th centuries, when princedoms spreading this religion began to appear. In the XIII century, these principalities finally united and created the Sukhothai Empire, defeating the Khmer, however, in the XII century. this empire disintegrated. At the same time, the principality under the name Siam was gaining momentum. This principality opened factories for the Dutch and the British, but Europeans regarded it as an excuse for conquest of the principality. Thus, Siam was captured by Europeans in the late 17th century. The seizure lasted for a relatively short time - until the beginning of the XVIII century - but it had significant consequences for the fate of the principality. After it regained its freedom from the Europeans, the principality weakened considerably, than the neighbors of the state used. Need I say that all of its ports Siam closed for Europeans? The wars with neighboring states resulted in the capture of the principality by the Burmese, though not for long. A few years later, Siam was again released from the invaders, but in the next century, the English will again invade here, which will impose on the state a treaty beneficial to themselves, providing benefits to trade. The situation became quieter at the beginning of the 20th century, when feudalism was outlived, and the administration was replaced by an administrative one, which corresponded to the European model.
During the First World War, the principality of Siam was on the side of the Entente. All this was accompanied by the continuous pressure on him of European countries. In the 20-ies, it became weaker, but inside the situation continued to be unstable. The influence of democratic forces became stronger, which led to the transfer of all power to parliament as a result of the coup d'état. The absolute monarchy was replaced by a constitutional one. Renunciation of the king from the throne fell on 1935. The mood in the government began to change to monarcho-nationalist. A few years later, the country changed its name to THAILAND. The Second World War was marked by the acquisition of Laos, the country entered into an alliance with Japan, but, nevertheless, was defeated and signed a pact on surrender. After the war, the situation in the state did not become more stable, more and more often coups took place, which with varying success influenced the reactionary regime.
In the north-east of the country for many years, archaeologists discover more interesting finds of prehistoric times. For example, in the Ban Chiang culture were found signs yet of the Bronze Age. The main ones have become rock paintings that are more than 5000 years. Here you will find close to other sites that relate to the Khmer period, which lasted in IX-XI centuries. At Phanom Rung This, as well as Phimai - two temples, which depicts gods and heroes. Also, there is Phra Tat Phanom - Monastery. In the southwestern part of THAILAND preserved monuments related to the Dvaravati Buddhist empire. Preserved remains of temples, sculptures, bas-reliefs, you will see in the Khu Bua Nakun Pathom, Lavaux and Phong Touquet. So ruins of Wat Phra Chedi both located in Nakhun Si Thammarat, more than a thousand years.
The first capital THAILAND became the city of Sukhothai, which appeared in the XIII-XV centuries. Today it is completely defeated in antiquity. It is a huge archaeological monument in the form of the park, where they still remain the ruins of many ancient temples, surrounded by a pond where lotuses bloom everywhere. Architecture THAILAND throughout the day to maintain the best traditions of Buddhist temples. Doi Suter-Shrine - one of those monasteries - is in Chiang Mai.
Another one of the ancient capitals of Siam - Ayutthaya. It is considered the most beautiful of all. This city was the capital in the XIV-XVIII centuries., Located to the north Bangkok. It was destroyed by the Burmese, but the remaining ruins did not lose their beauty. Here and the extraordinary beauty of the temples, and bells, and skilfully made towers of the pagodas, and fabulous images. In this place, three rivers merge: Menama and its tributaries. A little to the side of the city was previously a Buddha sculpture. Its location was in the temple of Wat Panancheng. Once upon a time, the temple of Wat Phra Si Sanpet was located, but today only three Buddhist stupas can be found instead. Magically looks at sunset Wat Chai Vattanaram. At all times, there were enough people who hunt for exotic souvenirs, because most of the churches were plundered. This place has now become a historic park.
Bangkok appeared in the XVIII century. Once in its place was a fishing village. There are a lot of examples of Thai architecture in its mature form preserved here. The city has up to 300 temples. More than two hundred years "lived" the royal palace, occupying an area of 60 ha, and represented a whole complex of buildings. Now it has become a museum. In Bangkok is located and the ancient residence of the king - Chitralada Villa. The most outstanding creation of architecture is Wat Phra Keo. The name of the temple is translated as "the temple of the Emerald Buddha." It is decorated with numerous statues and carving of incredible beauty. The marble church - Wat Bencha-mabofit - was built not so long ago, at the turn of XX-XXI centuries. He became a true example of modern architecture. The place of coronation of the monarchs is the temple of Phra Tinang Paysan Takshin. He is one of a whole complex of old residences. As for the holidays, in different parts of the country give preference to different holidays. So, the New Year is celebrated more brightly - Songkran - in the northern part of the country. Various festivals take place in the northeastern part, among them the Festival of Missiles, the Return of Rains, the Taking of a Paper Castle, the Making of a Buddha Statue, and many others.
How can you talk about THAILAND, without affecting his national dishes? The kitchen has become the most authentic business card of the inhabitants of this country. It attracts many visitors to THAILAND by its originality. The taste sensations are very different, but the game on contrast is immediately clearly audible: spicy-spicy, salty-sour, bitter-sweet. Separate, and maybe even, the main place in the traditional cuisine of Thailand is reserved for fruit. Their cutting here is the most perfect in the whole world. Even the real gourmets with a great experience are forced to admit that Thai cuisine is one of the first places in the world. Very pleased with Thai cuisine lovers of spicy food - there are plenty of such dishes. Consider this fact if you have stomach problems. And, believe me, drinking an acute dish with water, the sensations will not change. Thais are very wise in this situation: they take more rice.
Now for the rice. He's probably one of the most important products in THAILAND. Figure divided into two types: crumbly and sticky. The first kind of love in the center and south, the north and north-east of the preferred second type. Dry rice dishes to eat from a spoon, which, in turn, rice superimposed fork. Glutinous rice rolled into balls and eat. The knife is not required and is not used, because all of the ingredients in the dishes finely cut. Flavor of the dish is memorable because of coriander and lemongrass, who like to THAILAND.
Visiting Europeans prefer less exotic food. In particular, they are very fond of fried rice. It can be combined with fish, vegetables, crab, eggs. As for the rest of dishes, their cooking is carried out separately, and rice side dish goes to them. Standard dishes - roast with rice and spices, sweet and sour rice, oyster sauce. If you are looking for a more refined cuisine, try the sour-spicy soups, cold salad with dressing. Soups are often owe their aroma of lemongrass stalks, roots and spices that are cooked but not eaten.
A well-known delicacy of Thai cuisine - curry sauce and its many variations. It can be cooked with coconut milk, potato side dish, but there are also some of its varieties: light and sharp, tasty and very spicy greens. Speaking of sticky rice, it is impossible not to mention dishes such as fried chicken, spicy fish salad, spicy crab salad and papaya, spicy bamboo salad. Also very popular liquid rice soup and vegetable soup. The first is supplied separately garnish.
The second most important food product was noodles and pasta. They are divided into several types: thin rice noodles, thick rice noodles, nourishing noodles and egg noodles. Choose you, whether it will be fried noodles, whether boiled with broth, or without it. Noodles are served as a side dish for dumplings with meat, for meat or fish meatballs, slices of meat. To the noodles, too, can go various supplements. Most often - shoots of soy. Let's name a few dishes that are made from noodles. First of all, it is a long rice noodle, which is served with a salad and meat sauce. It is also popular noodles, fried with peanuts - a favorite dish of tourists. No less tasty is a spicy salad with noodles. Spices here are not only chili, sugar and vinegar, but also fish sauce, which is often replaced with salt. Soups, in which there are noodles, it is customary to eat with chopsticks.
As already noted, fruit in Thailand occupy a special place in Thai cuisine. Widely known to everyone is pineapple, papaya, mango. But besides them there is just a lot of fruits that grow in these parts. We do not know about them, as we can hardly find them in our market. The first of these fruits comes to mind durian. It has an irregular oval shape and sharp spines. Clearing it, you will find a yellow flesh, which has a taste, similar to both processed cheese and pudding with liqueur at the same time. Mangosteen is a purple fruit having a value equal to a tomato. The flesh of this fruit is refreshingly juicy. Sapodilla is no bigger than kiwi. Visiting the market, you probably will be surprised at the abundance of unfamiliar fruits and fruits that you will see there. For example, in a very large amount here you can find rambutan, which has a red color and long white spines. The fruit itself is small. Longan brown balls. Seeing the big green fruits, know that this is a jack-fruit. It has a slightly unpleasant smell. There are also fruits that are familiar to us. For example, pink apples. By the way, their colors are very different. There are even white.
Thais - a very talented people. And they are talented not only in terms of cuisine, but also in terms of applied art. Just look how skillfully they cut out all sorts of figurines from fruits and vegetables. Perhaps after watching this, you yourself will want to learn at least a little such a miracle. But the usual knives of such a miracle can not be created - you need to buy special ones. There is no love for sweet Thais. They, of course, prepare puddings, ice cream, pies, but Europeans do not enjoy these dishes. However, there are exceptions to each rule. And they became a sweet meringue and a coconut mass, reminiscent of marzipan.
As strange as it may sound, but people drink THAILAND is cold water. No less popular are teas, coffee, beer, lemonades, brandy of different types. Loves here and juices, but they must necessarily be fresh, with ice, as well as with syrup. The price policy for dishes is very democratic, and the number of cafes is quite large. Therefore, if you want to taste the dishes of Thai cuisine, you do not have to go far. In a huge number of eateries, diligent housewives work. For food here are very reverent, because the dishes are prepared only from fresh products. There is no menu here, because in all establishments there is approximately the same list of dishes. There is even only one dish.
There are varieties of dishes, the preparation of which is exclusively made to order. This yeast cakes, stewed chicken, pork legs. You can question the integrity of such eateries. But their undoubted advantage is that the food you are cooking right before your eyes, in contrast to the restaurants.
Just in restaurants and there is a menu, and it can really hit its vastness. In Thai cuisine is no concept of a "change of dishes." All meals are served at the same time.