Thailand Information, history, relationship with other countries, politics, revolution in Thailand, War, early history Thailand.
Thailand Information:There is a possibility that the ancestors Thais moved to this region of southern China. For several centuries, peoples migrated to Thailandfrom one river valley to the other. Generation THAILAND as the state took place much later than other European countries. Thus, immigrants came to the Khmer Khmer Empire State only in XI-XII centuries. Angkor was the center of the state - the territory of Cambodia today.
In Angkor chronicles can be seen that the first tie was called Siamese.
Thai Culture and the public organization developed rapidly under conditions of constant contact with Khmers and monks. Gradually the Siamese took root here and became real inhabitants of the Angkor state, playing a very important role in his life. The people sought independence, and they succeeded. First, autonomy was achieved, and later - in 1238 - independence. Now they had nothing to do with creating their own state here. They became the state of Sukhothai, which was located in the northern part of the Central Plain, and had the same capital. In other parts of the region, Thai principalities began to emerge: Lanna - in Northern Thailand, Phayao - in the southern part of Laos, Lopburi - in the south plains. Each of them, respectively, wants to expand its influence. Thus, the kingdom of Sukhothai was conquered Lopburi. Lopburi center was the city of Ayutthaya. Today he called Ayutthaya.
Over time, influence was also extended to southern Laos, Burma, as well as part of the island THAILAND. Angkor was conquered in the XV century. The legend says that after the spread of influence on the last principality, many artists, clergymen and artisans were relocated to Ayutthaya. All grips and confrontations have not passed without a trace for the development of culture. Siamese absorbed themselves, kK sponge, many things. Thus, a letter was borrowed, religious notions of Buddhism and Hinduism, many styles relating to the fine arts, and even a system of government. Kings who ruled at different times, like the Khmer monarchs, believed that excessive pomp and costliness of rituals and rituals would favorably strengthen the power behind them and increase their authority. Culture developed in all directions, and soon it reached considerable heights in the field of literature, architecture and theater. Fully formed feudal state closer to the end of the XV century. To that was the document, which was a code of laws on the civil, provincial and military hierarchy. The landowners depended on the king, and their financial situation depended entirely on the king's attitude toward them, and the peasants worked on the landowners, who in addition to their work were required to pay the tax. The feudal lords were not simply endowed with land and money, their duties included payment of taxes, as well as the supply of soldiers to the king. This region was sparsely inhabited. In the confrontations between the individual principalities, the main objective was primarily the movement of the people, and only then the seizure of the territory. Thus, large settlements were forcibly moved at that time.
Thailand Relations with the Europeans.After the state finally formed, Siamese began installing external trade relations with European countries. Of course, Japan and China have cooperated with Siam constantly, but the attention of the rulers greatly attracted European firearms. Often there were cases when the monarchs themselves emissaries sent to Europe for the fact that they were acquainted with European appliances, weapons and brought it into the country for their needs. But already in the XVII century the situation in the country became more shattered because of armed conflicts and wars in the country. However, foreigners often intervene in such conflicts.
Reign Chakri Dynasty. Konbaung Dynasty Dynasty, which established in Burma, enjoyed the unstable situation in Siam, showing aggressiveness more and more towards him. In 1767 was captured by the Burmese Ayutthaya - the capital of Siam. But soon Chinese troops invaded Burma, so the army was forced to leave Siam. The consequence of all this was the struggle of five candidates for power. All of them had influence in some parts of the country. Pia Thaksin won the fight. He founded the capital at Thonburi by the Chauphraya River. Subsequently, the monarch was overthrown by Praia Chakri, who was one of his generals. The capital was moved to the other side of the river, where it still remains - in the city of Bangkok. A new dynasty of kings began, which alternately bear the name of Rama. At the moment the ruler is Rama IX.
The first two kings of the new dynasty engaged in the consolidation of the state, as well as their system was restored feudal relations. It is, of course, was similar in many respects to the predecessor system, but there were important differences. The next two monarch established trade and diplomatic relations with the West have signed trade agreements, abolished the monopoly of the king on foreign trade. Rama IV even began to study foreign languages and invited European and American teachers for their yard.
The son of Rama IV Chulalongkorn also contributed to the development of the country. He transformed the state apparatus, abandoning the old system of government based on vassal dependence. The bureaucratic system came to the fore, the prototype of which was the British colonial administration in Burma. Rama V paid much attention to the construction of the railway and the development of communications. Such actions became a guarantee of strengthening the authority of the authorities in the periphery. He also modernized the country's armed forces. Of course, there were losses too: Rama V refused some of the regions dependent on Siam in favor of Europeans. But, despite this, Siam remained the only country that retained its independence.
Thailand diplomatic relations with other countriesaccess to the world market, as well as the internal strengthening of the country gave rise to economic growth in the country. Growth continued to 30-ies of XX century, when it was the world economic crisis. The transition to commercial production of consumer occurred for farmers painless, rice was grown for export. Capital was concentrated in the hands of the hands of entrepreneurs Thai and Chinese ethnic communities.
Arrival in Siam large number of Chinese fine affected the development of trade and small-scale industry. In China itself, in this period took place civil war, and in Siam happened rapid development in all aspects, because for the Chinese, such relocation was very beneficial.
The coup d'etat in Siamoccurred in 1932 year. Work centralized political structures has been successful under King Rama V, strengthen its credibility. But the rapid rise of the country had its consequences - a new elite in society. Thus, a bloodless coup in the country in 1932 was done by a small group of officials and the military. Executive power was transferred from King Rama VII Prachatipoka government. New constitution was adopted, according to which the powers of the monarch is severely limited.
Transformations were significant, but it was not necessary to wait for more radical ones. The middle class included Chinese entrepreneurs. They did not show much political activity. Thus, there was a situation in which officials and the army competed. The victory went to the higher officers. One of the leading instigators of the coup in the state was Professor Pridi Panomiong. They were offered a socialist economic program. The military did not approve of it. As a result of the coup in 1933, the government again was established by the military. Somewhat later, on the part of people supporting the monarchy, an attempt was made to rebel, but it was suppressed. In 1939, Siam changed its name to THAILAND.
During World War II, Japan has shown aggression toward Thailand, Breaking the resistance of the Thais. THAILAND became an ally of Japan. In general, the situation here during the war was relatively calm and stable. THAILAND able to maintain normal relations with the United States, even though he was in alliance with Japan.
In 40-70-ies. lasted a number of small feuds in the country. It changed its name, came to power or another force, but in the end THAILAND and remained a Kingdom, but the military remained in power. In Vietnam in the 60-ies were placed American air bases. The countries closely cooperated. The final withdrawal of US troops from THAILAND was carried out in 1973. Due to internal tension in the country and the economic recession, the Constitution and political parties were stopped in the 70-ies. A new text of the constitution was proposed. He proposed to form the highest legislative body only through appointments. In 1973, such changes have become the occasion for many student demonstrations. Later, they turned into real unrest that occurred throughout the country. An order was given by the army to suppress the insurrection, but the government was refused. The new constitution came into force in 1974 year. Until 1976, the military was not in power. The excitement continued for a long time. In the 80-x years, political extremism began to decline. At the same time, the economy began to gain momentum again. Tourism came to the fore and became the main economic dwelling.
After another coup in 1991 was again suspended the constitution. In the next year parliamentary elections were held. Won the war party. Head of government was General Suchinda Kraprayun. Crisis THAILAND lasted until the end of the XX century. He was accompanied by numerous anti-government demonstrations, violent dispersal of protesters, unrest in many cities across the country. Mid 1997 was marked by a new economic crisis. In order to somehow contribute to resolving the situation of the IMF provided an opportunity to take a large loan, but the government should have tax reform, privatization of numerous companies and to reduce the budget. Unrest in the country intensified. Prime Minister Yongchayyut resigned.